Social engineering attacks have become increasingly prevalent in recent years, posing significant risks to individuals, businesses, and organisations. These types of attacks exploit human psychology and manipulate individuals into revealing sensitive information, granting unauthorised access, or performing actions that can compromise security. In this blog post, we will explore the rise of social engineering attacks, understand their various forms, and provide practical tips on recognising and defending against them.

In this blog post, we will cover a few types of social engineering attacks, understand them, and provide practical tips on recognising and defending against them.


Phishing is a type of cyberattack where attackers impersonate a legitimate organisation or individual to deceive people into sharing sensitive information such as passwords, credit card numbers, or personal information. They typically do this through emails, instant messages, or fraudulent websites that mimic the appearance of trusted entities. The goal of phishing is to trick individuals into providing their personal information, which can then be used for identity theft, financial fraud, or other malicious activities.

How do I recognise phishing attacks?

  1. Be cautious of suspicious emails or messages asking for personal information, such as passwords, credit card numbers, or personal details.
  2. Look for spelling and grammar mistakes in the email or message, as phishing attempts often contain errors.
  3. Beware of urgent or alarming messages that create a sense of panic or pressure you to take immediate action.
  4. Check the sender’s email address or the message’s URL for any inconsistencies or unusual characters that may indicate a phishing attempt.
  5. Be sceptical of emails or messages that request you to click on links or download attachments, especially if they seem unexpected or from unknown sources.
  6. Hover over links (without clicking) to see the actual URL destination. If it looks suspicious or different from what you expect, don’t click on it.
  7. Avoid providing personal information or credentials through email or messages unless you are certain of the sender’s legitimacy.
  8. Pay attention to the tone of the message. Phishing attempts may use threats, urgency, or a sense of reward to manipulate you.
  9. Verify the information independently. Contact the company or organisation directly using official contact details to confirm the authenticity of the request.
  10. Trust your instincts. If something feels off or too good to be true, it’s better to be safe and not proceed.


Pretexting is a form of social engineering where an attacker creates a false scenario or pretext to deceive individuals into divulging sensitive information or performing certain actions. The attacker pretends to be someone they’re not to gain the trust of their target. They might use fabricated stories, impersonate authority figures, or manipulate situations to trick people into sharing confidential information.

How do I spot pretexting?

  1. Verify who is asking: Double-check the identity of anyone requesting sensitive information or access.
  2. Question unusual stories: Be sceptical of unexpected or strange situations presented to you. Don’t easily trust fabricated stories.
  3. Be cautious with personal questions: Watch out if someone you don’t know well asks for personal information that doesn’t seem necessary.
  4. Check credentials: If someone claims to be from a company or authority, ask for proof like identification or contact details to verify their legitimacy.
  5. Don’t rush or feel pressured. Be wary of requests that create urgency or make you feel rushed into taking immediate action.
  6. Keep personal information private. Avoid sharing sensitive information like IC numbers, passwords, or financial details unless you’re sure it’s necessary and secure.
  7. Stay informed: Learn about common pretexting tactics and scams to recognise and avoid them.
  8. Trust your instincts. If something feels wrong or suspicious, trust your gut and be cautious.


Tailgating, also known as piggybacking, occurs when an unauthorised person gains physical entry to a restricted area by closely following an authorised individual. The attacker takes advantage of someone else’s access rights by simply walking in behind them without proper authentication or authorization. This method bypasses security measures like access cards or keycodes.

How do you spot tailgating?

  1. Pay attention to entry points. Watch for anyone trying to enter without their own access credentials.
  2. Notice unfamiliar faces. Be cautious if you see someone you don’t recognise in restricted areas.
  3. Look for a lack of identification: Tailgaters often don’t have proper identification or badges.
  4. Be wary of groups using a single authorization. If multiple people are entering with only one access card, it could be suspicious.
  5. Trust your instincts. If something feels strange or suspicious, politely ask the person to use their own access or report the situation to security.
  6. Follow security procedures: Stick to the security guidelines and report any unusual activity.

Quid Pro Quo

Quid pro quo is a social engineering tactic where an attacker offers something desirable in exchange for sensitive information or access rights. For example, an attacker may pretend to be an IT technician and offer technical support in return for a user’s login credentials. The attacker uses the promise of a benefit or service to manipulate individuals into providing information that can be used for unauthorised access or malicious purposes.

How do you spot quid pro quo?

  1. Be careful of offers that seem too good to be true from people you don’t know.
  2. Watch out if someone asks for personal information in return for their offer.
  3. Question if the requested information or action makes sense in relation to what is being offered.
  4. Trust your instincts and be sceptical if something feels off or too enticing.
  5. Verify the person’s identity and authority before sharing any sensitive information.
  6. Seek advice from trusted people if you’re unsure about an offer or sharing information.
  7. Be aware of pressure or time constraints that may be used to rush you into a decision.
  8. Stay informed about common scams to recognise potential warning signs.

In conclusion, being aware of common social engineering attacks such as phishing, pretexting, tailgating, and quid pro quo is essential for maintaining your personal and digital security. By familiarising yourself with these techniques and knowing how to spot them, you can better protect yourself from falling victim to fraudulent schemes and unauthorised access attempts. Stay vigilant, trust your instincts, and remember to prioritise your security by verifying requests, avoiding sharing sensitive information, and seeking advice when needed. With these precautions, you can navigate the digital landscape more safely and confidently.

Condition Zebra is a CREST-certified and ISO 27001:2013 company that offers Professional Cybersecurity Solutions and Cybersecurity Training for SMEs in various industries, including Financial Services (Banks & Insurance), Government Ministries & Agencies, and Government-linked companies.

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Techtarget (2023). Available at:

More than 746,000 NHS phishing emails blocked. Available at:

What is pretexting? Available at:

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